Doing business across borders: Multimodal transportation

By Kenneth Muhangi Esq.
LLB(HONS) UCU LLM(WALES)
Dip.Lp(LDC)

Multimodal transportation has become a major driving force of the world's economy. The innovations in this field, like the invention of the modern intermodal containers, by Malcolm Mclean[1], which gave rise to containerization, have revolutionalized international multimodal transportation.

Doing Business overseas: Contracts of carriage of goods by sea

By Kenneth Muhangi Esq.
LLB(HONS) UCU LLM(WALES)
Dip.Lp(LDC)

A contract is an agreement giving rise to obligations which are enforced or recognized by law[1]. Contracts of carriage of goods by sea are applied with more or less the same principles as those of ordinary contracts. Contracts of carriage have been standardized to make trading easier and The Uniform General Charter Code name GENCON is the most widely used standard contract for voyage charter party agreements.

Understanding International carriage contracts F.O.B with additional services

By Kenneth Muhangi Esq.
LLB(HONS) UCU LLM(WALES)
Dip.Lp(LDC)

Export sales agreements are usually characterized by trade terms that are not used in traditional sales agreements.
F.o.b. is a trade term that stands for Free on Board and the nature of this contract is that the seller assumes responsibility for placing the goods on Board a ship that has been named to him by the buyer. The seller in this instance bears all costs up to the delivery of the goods on board the vessel.